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WASHINGTON NEIGHBORHOOD x Adidas Iniki Runner Boost Hombre Negras Rebajas , July 11 (Xinhua) -- A strange form of ice that's found naturally only on alien worlds has been captured being frozen from water in real time on Earth for the first time, U.S. researchers said Tuesday.
In a study published online in the U.S. journal Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Stanford University described how ice VII, or ice seven, which normally forms in environments such as when icy planetary bodies collide, was created and imaged in the lab in just billionths of a second.
"These experiments with water are the first of their kind, allowing us to witness a fundamental disorder-to-order transition in one of the most abundant molecules in the universe," said study lead author Arianna Gleason, a postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a visiting scientist in the Extreme Environments Laboratory of Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences.
Under regular conditions on our planet's surface, water crystallizes in only one way, dubbed ice Ih or simply "hexagonal ice," whether in glaciers or ice cube trays in the freezer.
To create ice VII, Stanford researchers used the Linac Coherent Light Source, the world's most powerful X-ray laser.
First, the science team beamed an intense, green-colored laser at a small target containing a sample of liquid water.
The laser instantly vaporized layers of diamond on one side of the target, generating a rocket-like force that compressed the water to pressures exceeding 50,000 times that of Earth's atmosphere at sea level.
As the water compacted, a second beam from an instrument called the X-ray Free Electron Laser arrived in a series of bright pulses, each of which lasts only a femtosecond, or a quadrillionth of a second.
Akin to camera flashes, this X-ray laser snapped a set of images on the progression of molecular changes as the pressurized water crystallized into ice VII.
The phase change took just six billionths of a second, or nanoseconds, and during this process, the water molecules bonded into rod shapes, and not spheres as theory predicted, the team said.
Delving into extraterrestrial ice types, including ice VII, will help scientists model such remote environments as comet impacts, the internal structures of potentially life-supporting, water-filled moons like Jupiter's Europa, and the dynamics of jumbo, rocky, oceanic exoplanets called super-Earths.
"Any icy satellite or planetary interior is intimately connected to the object's surface," Gleason said. "Learning about these icy interiors will help us understand how the worlds in our solar system formed and how at least one of them, so far as we know, came to have all the necessary characteristics for life."
LONDON, July 4 (Xinhua) -- Fifth seed Stan Wawrinka suffered a shock defeat to Daniil Medvedev of Russia 6-4, 3-6, 6-4, 6-1 in the opening day's competition of the Wimbledon Championships on Monday.
Fourth seed Rafael Nadal beat the world No.137 John Millmain of Australia in a lopsided 6-1, 6-3, 6-2 match while Andy Murray begun the defence of his title with a 6-1, 6-4, 6-2 win over world No. 134 Alexander Bublik.
The 32-year-old Wawrinka, a three-time Grand Slam champion, needed ice on a knee injury between points as he became the biggest name to fall. World number 20 Nick Kyrgios was the other seeded player failing to reach round two, retiring because of a hip injury.
It was his Medvedv's first Grand Slam victory on his Wimbledon debut, and he dropped to his knees and kissed the green stuff.
"At 5-1, already I started thinking what I have to do after the match if I win it," the 21-year-old Medvedev said. "And I did it because it's my first Grand Slam win, it's at Wimbledon - my favourite tournament - I had to kiss the grass, I guess. Even though people do it when they win the slam, I did it when I win my first match at a slam."
"I had a really great grass court season," he said. "I knew that Stan had some problems at Queen's, he had only played on match on grass. I knew that I would have the chance if I played good and third and first set, I think I was playing amazing."
Medvedev has been maintaining good form this year. He reached the semifinals in Eastbourne last week and entered the quarterfinals at Queen's club. He has already secured a berth in the top 50 after the victory.
"I'm really happy," he said. "Wimbledon is my favourite Grand Slam. It was in my juniors and still is.
"One year ago I was 250th in the rankings and if someone said I would not only play on Centre but win I would say: 'You are joking!'"
Wawrinka has only reached two quarterfinals in his 13 appearances at Wimbledon.
"I wasn't feeling the way I wanted to feel but I played against a great player," said Wawrinka. "I had problems with the knee since Queen's. It is not something new but something I had in the past. Apparently grass is not the best surface for my knee and I need to figure out what I'm going to do and come back when I have no pain."
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